The analysis of the piRNA mechanism in hamster germ cells has changed the view of the functioning of this mechanism in mammalian germ cells by showing, among other things, that piRNAs are also important for female fertility.
piRNAs are small RNAs, which contribute to genome defence in animal germ cells. The piRNA pathway recognizes and silences endogenous retroviruses and other parasitic mobile DNA sequences. Studies of piRNAs in mouse mutants suggested that mammalian piRNAs are nonessential for oocytes. However, analysis of hamsters, whose piRNA pathway is similar to other mammals including humans, showed that mammalian piRNAs are also essential for oocytes, while the mouse model evolved in a different way.
|Publication||Loubalova Z, Fulka H, Horvat F, Pasulka J, Malik R, Hirose M, Ogura A, and Svoboda P: Formation of spermatogonia and fertile oocytes in golden hamsters requires piRNAs. Nat Cell Biol 2021 23(9): 992-1001. [pubmed] [doi]|
|Contact||Petr Svoboda, (+420) 296 443 147, firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Cooperating subject||Atsuo Ogury Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, Japan|
snRNP particles are the building blocks of a huge complex that catalyzes pre-mRNA splicing. In this study, we describe a novel protein that helps fold this complex.
Before a protein is synthetized, the information for its synthesis is first transcribed from DNA into an RNA molecule called pre-mRNA. However, only a small part of pre-mRNA contains the information for the protein, the rest must be removed in a process called RNA splicing. All steps during RNA splicing are carried out by molecular scissors – a huge complex containing 150 components. In this work, we described a new protein that assists the correct and rapid assembly of the molecular scissors.
|Publication||Klimešová K, Vojáčková J, Radivojević N, Vandermoere F, Bertrand E, Verheggen C, Staněk D: TSSC4 is a component of U5 snRNP that promotes tri-snRNP formation. Nat Commun 2021 12(1): 3646. [pubmed] [doi]|
|Contact||David Staněk, (+420) 296 443 118, email@example.com|
|Cooperating subject||Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier, University of Montpellier, CNRS, Montpellier, France|
Equipe labélisée Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer, Montpellier, France
Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, University of Montpellier, CNRS, INSERM, Montpellier, France
Research revealing the essential role of Meis family transcription factors as regulators of cell fate competence and providing mechanistic insight into gene regulatory networks in the retina.
Vision is a crucial sense of vertebrates. Genetic manipulation in mice allows addressing the role of individual genes in eye development, and given the conserved role of genes, implicate their function in humans as well. We show that in the developing mouse embryo, Meis transcription factors control complex gene regulatory networks responsible for the maintenance of progenitor cells and retina differentiation.